Python3中urllib的详细使用方法,包含爬取网页、设置代理、设置header头、设置超时、认证、异常处理等。

urllib是python的一个获取url(Uniform Resource Locators,统一资源定址器),我们可以利用它来抓取远程的数据进行保存分析。

 

Python3 抓取网页的 N 种方法

1、最简单

import urllib.request
response = urllib.request.urlopen('http://python.org/')
html = response.read()

 

2、使用 Request

import urllib.request

req = urllib.request.Request('http://python.org/')
response = urllib.request.urlopen(req)
the_page = response.read()

 

3、发送数据

#! /usr/bin/env python3

import urllib.parse
import urllib.request

url = 'http://localhost/login.php'
user_agent = 'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.5; Windows NT)'
values = {
'act' : 'login',
'login[email]' : 'yzhang@i9i8.com',
'login[password]' : '123456'
}

data = urllib.parse.urlencode(values)
req = urllib.request.Request(url, data)
req.add_header('Referer', 'http://mimvp.com')
response = urllib.request.urlopen(req)
the_page = response.read()

print(the_page.decode("utf8"))

 

4、发送数据和header

#! /usr/bin/env python3

import urllib.parse
import urllib.request

url = 'http://localhost/login.php'
user_agent = 'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.5; Windows NT)'
values = {
'act' : 'login',
'login[email]' : 'yzhang@i9i8.com',
'login[password]' : '123456'
}
headers = { 'User-Agent' : user_agent }

data = urllib.parse.urlencode(values)
req = urllib.request.Request(url, data, headers)
response = urllib.request.urlopen(req)
the_page = response.read()

print(the_page.decode("utf8"))

 

5、http 错误

#! /usr/bin/env python3

import urllib.request

req = urllib.request.Request('http://mimvp.com')
try:
urllib.request.urlopen(req)
except urllib.error.HTTPError as e:
print(e.code)
print(e.read().decode("utf8"))

 

6、异常处理(1)

#! /usr/bin/env python3

from urllib.request import Request, urlopen
from urllib.error import URLError, HTTPError
req = Request("http://mimvp.com/")
try:
response = urlopen(req)
except HTTPError as e:
print('The server couldn't fulfill the request.')
print('Error code: ', e.code)
except URLError as e:
print('We failed to reach a server.')
print('Reason: ', e.reason)
else:
print("good!")
print(response.read().decode("utf8"))

 

7、异常处理(2)

#! /usr/bin/env python3

from urllib.request import Request, urlopen
from urllib.error import  URLError
req = Request("http://mimvp.com/")
try:
response = urlopen(req)
except URLError as e:
if hasattr(e, 'reason'):
print('We failed to reach a server.')
print('Reason: ', e.reason)
elif hasattr(e, 'code'):
print('The server couldn't fulfill the request.')
print('Error code: ', e.code)
else:
print("good!")
print(response.read().decode("utf8"))

 

8、HTTP 认证

#! /usr/bin/env python3

import urllib.request

# create a password manager
password_mgr = urllib.request.HTTPPasswordMgrWithDefaultRealm()

# Add the username and password.
# If we knew the realm, we could use it instead of None.
top_level_url = "https://mimvp.com"
password_mgr.add_password(None, top_level_url, 'rekfan', 'xxxxxx')

handler = urllib.request.HTTPBasicAuthHandler(password_mgr)

# create "opener" (OpenerDirector instance)
opener = urllib.request.build_opener(handler)

# use the opener to fetch a URL
a_url = "https://mimvp.com"
x = opener.open(a_url)
print(x.read())

# Install the opener.
# Now all calls to urllib.request.urlopen use our opener.
urllib.request.install_opener(opener)

a = urllib.request.urlopen(a_url).read().decode('utf8')
print(a)

 

9、使用代理

#! /usr/bin/env python3

import urllib.request

proxy_support = urllib.request.ProxyHandler({'sock5': 'localhost:1080'})
opener = urllib.request.build_opener(proxy_support)
urllib.request.install_opener(opener)


a = urllib.request.urlopen("http://mimvp.com").read().decode("utf8")
print(a)

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10、超时设置

#! /usr/bin/env python3

import socket
import urllib.request

# timeout in seconds
timeout = 2
socket.setdefaulttimeout(timeout)

# this call to urllib.request.urlopen now uses the default timeout
# we have set in the socket module
req = urllib.request.Request('http://mimvp.com/')
a = urllib.request.urlopen(req).read()
print(a)

 

 

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