Requests 是用Python语言编写HTTP客户端库,跟urllib、urllib2类似,基于 urllib,但比 urllib 更加方便,可以节约我们大量的工作,完全满足 HTTP 测试需求,编写爬虫和测试服务器响应数据时经常会用到。

Requests 的哲学是以 PEP 20 的习语为中心开发的,所以它比 urllib 更加 Pythoner,更重要的一点是它支持 Python3 

  • Beautiful is better than ugly. (美丽优于丑陋)
  • Explicit is better than implicit. (清楚优于含糊)
  • Simple is better than complex. (简单优于复杂)
  • Complex is better than complicated. (复杂优于繁琐)
  • Readability counts. (重要的是可读性)

 

Requests 官网

https://pypi.python.org/pypi/requests

 

安装 Requests

方式1)pip 安装

pip install requests      # python2.7
pip3 install requests    # python3.6

 

方式2)源码安装

下载 requests-2.18.2.tar.gz

解压安装:

tar zxvf requests-2.18.2.tar.gz
cd requests
python setup.py install

验证安装:

$ python
Python 2.7.13 (v2.7.13:a06454b1afa1, Dec 17 2016, 12:39:47) 
[GCC 4.2.1 (Apple Inc. build 5666) (dot 3)] on darwin
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import requests
>>> requests
<module 'requests' from '/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/site-packages/requests/__init__.pyc'>

 

使用 Requests

requests 封装了Python的urlib和urllib2,所以爬取网页非常简洁

1. 爬取网页

import requests

# 爬取米扑科技首页
req = requests.get(url = 'http://mimvp.com')
print("status_code : " + str(req.status_code))
print("mimvp text : " + req.text)

# 爬取米扑代理(含请求参数)
req = requests.get(url='http://proxy.mimvp.com/free.php', params={'proxy':'out_tp','sort':'p_ping'})   
print("status_code : " + str(req.status_code))
print("mimvp text : " + req.text)

爬取网页非常简洁吧,Python urllib 三行代码,requests只需要一行代码搞定

urllib :  urllib.urlopen('http://mimvp.com').read()

urllib2: urllib2.urlopen('http://mimvp.com').read()

或者

import urllib2
req = urllib2.Request('http://mimvp.com')
res = urllib2.urlopen(req)
page = res.read()

 

requests 接口格式:

requests.get('https://mimvp.com/timeline.json')    # GET请求
requests.post('http://mimvp.com/post')            # POST请求
requests.put('http://mimvp.com/put')              # PUT请求
requests.delete('http://mimvp.com/delete')        # DELETE请求
requests.head('http://mimvp.com/get')             # HEAD请求
requests.options('http://mimvp.com/get')          # OPTIONS请求

 

requests 接口示例:

import requests
requests.get('http://mimvp.com', params={'love': 'mimvp'})    # GET参数实例
requests.post('http://mimvp.com', data={'love': 'mimvp'})     # POST参数实例

 

Requests 设置代理

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- encoding: utf-8 -*-
#
# Python requests 支持 http、https、socks4、socks5
#
# 米扑代理示例:
# http://proxy.mimvp.com/demo2.php
# 
# 米扑代理购买:
# http://proxy.mimvp.com
# 
# mimvp.com
# 2016-09-16


import requests
import ssl
import socks, socket    # 需要引入socks.py文件,请到米扑代理下载


mimvp_url = "http://proxy.mimvp.com/exist.php"
mimvp_url2 = "https://proxy.mimvp.com/exist.php"
mimvp_url3 = "https://apps.bdimg.com/libs/jquery-i18n/1.1.1/jquery.i18n.min.js"
            
            
# 使用代理 http, https
proxies = { 
            "http"  : "http://120.77.155.249:8888", 
            "https" : "http://54.255.211.38:80", 
           }   
  
req = requests.get(mimvp_url2, proxies=proxies, timeout=30, verify=False) 
print("mimvp text : " + req.text)



# 使用代理 socks4
proxies = { 
            'socks4' : '163.121.188.2:4000',
           }   
 
socks4_ip = proxies['socks4'].split(":")[0]
socks4_port = int(proxies['socks4'].split(":")[1])
socks.setdefaultproxy(socks.PROXY_TYPE_SOCKS4, socks4_ip, socks4_port)
socket.socket = socks.socksocket
 
req = requests.get(mimvp_url2, timeout=30, verify=False) 
print("mimvp text : " + req.text)



# 使用代理 socks5
proxies = { 
            'socks5' : '190.9.58.211:45454',
           }   
  
socks5_ip = proxies['socks5'].split(":")[0]
socks5_port = int(proxies['socks5'].split(":")[1])
socks.setdefaultproxy(socks.PROXY_TYPE_SOCKS5, socks5_ip, socks5_port)
socket.socket = socks.socksocket
  
req = requests.get(mimvp_url2, timeout=30, verify=False) 
print("mimvp text : " + req.text)

 

本示例采用的米扑代理,支持 http、https、socks4、socks5等多种协议,覆盖全球120多个国家,中国34个省市

推荐米扑代理: http://proxy.mimvp.com

 

 

参考推荐:

Python pyspider 安装与开发

Python3 urllib 用法详解

PhantomJS 安装与开发

Node.js 安装与开发

Node.js SuperAgent 安装与开发