Linux(CentOS)上配置 nginx、mysql、php-fpm、redis 开机启动,编写开机启动脚本。

系统环境: CentOS Linux

 

I、nginx开机启动

1. 在/etc/init.d/目录下创建脚本

vim  /etc/init.d/nginx

 

2. 更改脚本权限

chmod 775 /etc/init.d/nginx

 

3. 编写脚本内容

#!/bin/bash
# nginx Startup script for the Nginx HTTP Server
# it is v.0.0.2 version.
# chkconfig: - 85 15
# description: Nginx is a high-performance web and proxy server.
#              It has a lot of features, but it's not for everyone.
# processname: nginx
# pidfile: /var/run/nginx.pid
# config: /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
nginxd=/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx
nginx_config=/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
nginx_pid=/usr/local/webserver/nginx/logs/nginx.pid
RETVAL=0
prog="nginx"
# Source function library.
.  /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions
# Source networking configuration.
.  /etc/sysconfig/network
# Check that networking is up.
[ ${NETWORKING} = "no" ] && exit 0
[ -x $nginxd ] || exit 0
# Start nginx daemons functions.
start() {
if [ -e $nginx_pid ];then
   echo "nginx already running...."
   exit 1
fi
   echo -n $"Starting $prog: "
   daemon $nginxd -c ${nginx_config}
   RETVAL=$?
   echo
   [ $RETVAL = 0 ] && touch /var/lock/subsys/nginx
   return $RETVAL
}
# Stop nginx daemons functions.
stop() {
        echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "
        killproc $nginxd
        RETVAL=$?
        echo
        [ $RETVAL = 0 ] && rm -f /var/lock/subsys/nginx /usr/local/webserver/nginx/logs/nginx.pid
}

reload() {
    echo -n $"Reloading $prog: "
    #kill -HUP `cat ${nginx_pid}`
    killproc $nginxd -HUP
    RETVAL=$?
    echo
}
# See how we were called.
case "$1" in
start)
        start
        ;;
stop)
        stop
        ;;
reload)
        reload
        ;;
restart)
        stop
        start
        ;;
status)
        status $prog
        RETVAL=$?
        ;;
*)
        echo $"Usage: $prog {start|stop|restart|reload|status|help}"
        exit 1
esac
exit $RETVAL

 

4. 设置开机启动

chkconfig nginxd on

 

II、设置mysql开机启动

将mysql安装目录下 support-files目录下的mysql.server文件拷贝到/etc/init.d/目录下并改名为mysqld,并更改权限

chmod 775 /etc/init.d/mysqld

 

设置开机启动

chkconfig mysqld on

 

III、php-fpm开机启动

1. 在/etc/init.d/目录下创建脚本

vim /etc/init.d/php-fpm

 

2. 更改脚本权限

chmod 775 /etc/init.d/php-fpm

 

3. 编写脚本内容

#!/bin/sh
#
# php-fpm - this script starts and stops the php-fpm daemin
#
# chkconfig: - 85 15
# processname: php-fpm
# config:      /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf

set -e

PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
DESC="php-fpm daemon"
NAME=php-fpm
DAEMON=/usr/local/php/sbin/$NAME     //这里设成自己的目录
CONFIGFILE=/usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf   //这里设成自己的目录
PIDFILE=/usr/local/php/var/run/$NAME.pid   //这里设成自己的目录
SCRIPTNAME=/etc/init.d/$NAME   //这里设成自己的目录

# If the daemon file is not found, terminate the script.
test -x $DAEMON || exit 0

d_start(){
    $DAEMON -y $CONFIGFILE || echo -n " already running"
}

d_stop(){
    kill -QUIT `cat $PIDFILE` || echo -n " no running"
}

d_reload(){
    kill -HUP `cat $PIDFILE` || echo -n " could not reload"
}

case "$1" in
    start)
        echo -n "Starting $DESC: $NAME"
        d_start
        echo "."
        ;;
    stop)
        echo -n "Stopping $DESC: $NAME"
        d_stop
        echo "."
        ;;
    reload)
        echo -n "Reloading $DESC configuration..."
        d_reload
        echo "Reloaded."
        ;;
    restart)
        echo -n "Restarting $DESC: $NAME"
        d_stop
        # Sleep for two seconds before starting again, this should give the nginx daemon some time to perform a graceful stop
        sleep 2
        d_start
        echo "."
        ;;
    *)
        echo "Usage: $SCRIPTNAME {start|stop|restart|force-reload)" >&2
        exit 3
        ;;
esac
exit 0

 

4. 设置开机启动

chkconfig php-fpm on

 

Ⅳ、redis 开机启动

1. 在/etc/init.d/目录下创建脚本

vim /etc/init.d/redis

 

2. 更改脚本权限

chmod 775 /etc/init.d/redis

 

3. 编写脚本内容

###########################
PATH=/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/bin

REDISPORT=6379
EXEC=/usr/local/bin/redis-server
REDIS_CLI=/usr/local/bin/redis-cli

PIDFILE=/var/run/redis.pid
CONF="/etc/redis.conf"

case "$1" in
    start)
        if [ -f $PIDFILE ]
        then
                echo "$PIDFILE exists, process is already running or crashed"
        else
                echo "Starting Redis server..."
                $EXEC $CONF
        fi
        if [ "$?"="0" ]
        then
              echo "Redis is running..."
        fi
        ;;
    stop)
        if [ ! -f $PIDFILE ]
        then
                echo "$PIDFILE does not exist, process is not running"
        else
                PID=$(cat $PIDFILE)
                echo "Stopping ..."
                $REDIS_CLI -p $REDISPORT SHUTDOWN
                while [ -x ${PIDFILE} ]
               do
                    echo "Waiting for Redis to shutdown ..."
                    sleep 1
                done
                echo "Redis stopped"
        fi
        ;;
   restart|force-reload)
        ${0} stop
        ${0} start
        ;;
  *)
    echo "Usage: /etc/init.d/redis {start|stop|restart|force-reload}" >&2
        exit 1
esac
##############################

 

4. 设置开机启动

chkconfig redis on

至此,大功告成。

可以用命令 chkconfig 查看开机启动服务列表

chkconfig --list

 

附录:

1、nigx重启错误

bind() to 0.0.0.0:80 failed (98: Address already in use)

这个是nginx重启是 经常遇到的。 网上找了很多信息 都是没有啥用。说的乱七八糟的。 发现原来是nginx重复重启。自己占用了端口。 解决方法

killall -9 nginx

杀掉nginx 进程 然后重启就行了。

service nginx restart

 

2、php-fpm 启动 关闭

php-fpm 不再支持 php-fpm 补丁具有的 /usr/local/php/sbin/php-fpm (start|stop|reload)等命令,需要使用信号控制:

master 进程可以理解以下信号

  • SIGINT, SIGTERM 立刻终止
  • SIGQUIT 平滑终止
  • SIGUSR1 重新打开日志文件
  • SIGUSR2 平滑重载所有worker进程并重新载入配置和二进制模块

示例:

php-fpm 关闭:

kill -SIGINT `cat /usr/local/php/var/run/php-fpm.pid`

 

php-fpm 重启:

kill -SIGUSR2 `cat /usr/local/php/var/run/php-fpm.pid`

其次配置文件不再使用的xml 格式,改为了INI,但是配置参数几乎和以前一样,可参照xml格式的格式配置。

 

 

3、nginx 启动 关闭

1. nginx的启动 (nginx.conf文件基本上位于nginx主目录中的conf目录中)

nginx -c nginx.conf

2. nginx的停止 (nginx.pid文件基本上位于nginx主目录中的logs目录中)

ps -ef | grep nginx

可发现数个nginx进程,其中标有master的为主进程,其它为子进程, 停止nginx主要就是对主进程进行信号控制.

从容停止

kill -QUIT `cat nginx.pid`

 

快速停止

kill -TERM `cat nginx.pid`

or

kill -INT `cat nginx.pid`

强制停止

kill -9 `cat nginx.pid`

nginx的平滑重启

首先要验证新的配置文件是否正确:

nginx -t -c nginx.conf

成功后向主进程发送HUP信号即可: [/shell]kill -HUP cat nginx.pid[/shell]

 

4、nginx 平滑升级

1. 备份好旧的可执行文件,使用新版本替换旧版本

2. kill -USR2 旧版本的主进程PID 进行平滑升级, 此时新老版本共存

3. kill -WINCH 旧版本的主进程PID 逐步关闭旧主进程的工作进程

4. 当旧主进程产生的工作进程全部关闭后, 可以决定是否使用新版本还是旧版本.(需要使用kill命令来杀死新或旧主进程)

#!/bin/sh
BASE_DIR='/usr/local/'
${BASE_DIR}nginx/sbin/nginx -t -c ${BASE_DIR}nginx/conf/nginx.conf >& ${BASE_DIR}nginx/logs/nginx.start
info=`cat ${BASE_DIR}nginx/logs/nginx.start`
if [ `echo $info | grep -c "syntax is ok" ` -eq 1 ]; then
if [ `ps aux|grep "nginx"|grep -c "master"` == 1 ]; then
kill -HUP `cat ${BASE_DIR}nginx/logs/nginx.pid`
echo "ok"
else
killall -9 nginx
sleep 1
${BASE_DIR}nginx/sbin/nginx
fi
else
echo "######## error: ########"
cat ${BASE_DIR}nginx/logs/nginx.start
fi

 

 

5、CentOS修改系统环境变量

我这里拿php作为一个例子,我的php安装在/usr/local/webserver/php下,没有把php加入环境变量时,你在命令行执行

# 查看当前php的版本信息
[root@CentOS ~]# php -v

会提示你此命令不存在。

下面详细说说linux下修改环境变量的方法

方法一:

在/etc/profile文件中添加变量【对所有用户生效(永久的)】
用VI在文件/etc/profile文件中增加变量,该变量将会对Linux下所有用户有效,并且是“永久的”。

[root@CentOS ~]# vim /etc/profile

在文件末尾加上如下两行代码

PATH=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin:$PATH
export PATH

如:

# /etc/profile

# System wide environment and startup programs, for login setup
# Functions and aliases go in /etc/bashrc

# It's NOT a good idea to change this file unless you know what you
# are doing. It's much better to create a custom.sh shell script in
# /etc/profile.d/ to make custom changes to your environment, as this
# will prevent the need for merging in future updates.

pathmunge () {
    case ":${PATH}:" in
        *:"$1":*)
            ;;
        *)
            if [ "$2" = "after" ] ; then
                PATH=$PATH:$1
            else
                PATH=$1:$PATH
            fi
    esac
}

if [ -x /usr/bin/id ]; then
    if [ -z "$EUID" ]; then
        # ksh workaround
        EUID=`id -u`
        UID=`id -ru`
    fi
    USER="`id -un`"
    LOGNAME=$USER
    MAIL="/var/spool/mail/$USER"
fi

# Path manipulation
if [ "$EUID" = "0" ]; then
    pathmunge /sbin
    pathmunge /usr/sbin
    pathmunge /usr/local/sbin
else
    pathmunge /usr/local/sbin after
    pathmunge /usr/sbin after
    pathmunge /sbin after
fi

HOSTNAME=`/bin/hostname 2>/dev/null`
HISTSIZE=1000
if [ "$HISTCONTROL" = "ignorespace" ] ; then
    export HISTCONTROL=ignoreboth
else
    export HISTCONTROL=ignoredups
fi

export PATH USER LOGNAME MAIL HOSTNAME HISTSIZE HISTCONTROL

# By default, we want umask to get set. This sets it for login shell
# Current threshold for system reserved uid/gids is 200
# You could check uidgid reservation validity in
# /usr/share/doc/setup-*/uidgid file
if [ $UID -gt 199 ] && [ "`id -gn`" = "`id -un`" ]; then
    umask 002
else
    umask 022
fi

for i in /etc/profile.d/*.sh ; do
    if [ -r "$i" ]; then
        if [ "${-#*i}" != "$-" ]; then
            . "$i"
        else
            . "$i" >/dev/null 2>&1
        fi
    fi
done

unset i
unset pathmunge

PATH=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin:$PATH
export PATH

要是刚才的修改马上生效,需要执行以下代码

[root@CentOS ~]# source /etc/profile

这时再查看系统环境变量,就能看见刚才加的东西已经生效了

[root@CentOS ~]# echo $PATH
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin:/usr/lib/qt-3.3/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/root/bin

现在就能直接使用php命令了(而不是像之前写很长一串/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php -v),例如查看当前php的版本

[root@CentOS ~]# php -v
PHP 5.3.8 (cli) (built: Jun 27 2012 14:28:20)
Copyright (c) 1997-2011 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v2.3.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2011 Zend Technologies

 

方法二:

在用户目录下的.bash_profile文件中增加变量【对单一用户生效(永久的)】
用VI在用户目录下的.bash_profile文件中增加变量,改变量仅会对当前用户有效,并且是“永久的”。具体操作和方法1一样,这里就不在列举代码了。

 

方法三:

直接运行export命令定义变量【只对当前shell(BASH)有效(临时的)】

在shell的命令行下直接使用[export变量名=变量值]定义变量,该变量只在当前的shell(BASH)或其子shell(BASH)下是有效的,shell关闭了,变量也就失效了,再打开新shell时就没有这个变量,需要使用的话还需要重新定义。例如

export PATH=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin:$PATH

 

 

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